Tor's Jo Walton is reviewing the Hugo Awards Nominees -- starting in 1953. I started reading science fiction in the 1960s, so many of the early winners are vaguely familiar.
Jo refers us to the Locus Index to SF Awards, such as this 1959 Hugo listing including Alfred Bester's 1959s short story "The Men Who Murdered Mohammed" - which is not nearly as inflammatory as it sounds.
Many of these stories can, with some work, be ordered through well connected libraries. I plan to try a few.