My current list is ...
- Newton: Perhaps autism spectrum, but he was so brilliant, and so bizarre, that he's untypable. He's outside of the human range. He may have hard mercury poisoning late in life, or perhaps a late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis.
- John Nash: paranoid schizophrenic, though somewhat late-onset. His recovery is remarkable, as was Newton's -- but he was psychotic for a longer time period.
- Kurt Godel: schizotypal, later in life delusional beliefs with paranoid features.
- Nikolai Tesla: OCD, Autism spectrum?
- Henry Cavendish: social phobia, anxiety disorder.
- Boltzmann: bipolar disorder (classic)
Update: Philip K Dick wasn't quite in this group, but his late-onset pyschosis experience resembles Tesla's. Matt suggested Godel and Boltzmann. The pattern of schizotypal personality disorder behaviors with late-onset deterioration or psychosis might apply to Tesla, Newton and Godel. Botlzmann and Nash had more classic neurospychiatric disorders.
These are most extraordinary minds. It would not be surprising if they had extraordinary dysfunctions.
Update 6/7/2012: An academic opinion.